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Introduction to customized dispersing prisms
In optics, a customized dispersing prism is an optical prism that is used to disperse light, that is, to separate light into its spectral components (the colors of the rainbow). Different wavelengths (colors) of light will be deflected by the prism at different angles.This is a result of the prism material's index of refraction varying with wavelength (dispersion). Generally, longer wavelengths (red) undergo a smaller deviation than shorter wavelengths (blue). The dispersion of white light into colors by a prism led Sir Isaac Newton to conclude that white light consisted of a mixture of different colors.
Triangular prisms are the most common type of customized dispersing prism. Other types of customized dispersing prism exist that have more than two optical interfaces; some of them combine refraction with total internal reflection.
Types of customized dispersing prism:
Amici prism and other types of compound prisms
Littrow prism with mirror on its rear facet