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The principle of dispersing prism
In optics, dispersing prism is a kind of optical prism. Its cross section is usually a geometric triangle. Other dispersing prisms or prism groups used for dispersion are also called dispersing prism. Among them, prism is the most well-known optical prism, although it is not common in real life.
Dispersing prism is used to disperse light, that is, to separate monochromatic light which is composed of polychromatic light. According to the different refraction angles of different wavelengths of light in the same material, the polychromatic light is decomposed into monochromatic light.
Dispersing prism is used to decompose the composition of light and make the light present the color of the original spectrum. Because the refractive index is related to the frequency of light, when white light mixed with various frequencies enters the prism, different frequencies are deflected to different degrees. Blue light decelerates more than red light, so it deflects more than red light.
Dispersion can be realized by using dispersing prism or grating as "dispersion system". For example, a thin beam of sunlight can be divided into red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and purple by dispersing prism. This is due to the different refractive index of various colors in the polychromatic light. When they pass through the prism, their propagation directions are deflected in different degrees, so they disperse into monochromatic light when they leave the dispersing prism.