The characteristics and advantages of the three major laser crystals

1. Nd:YAG crystal is a solid laser material with the best comprehensive performance. It has high gain, low threshold, high efficiency, low loss, good thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance. It is suitable for a variety of laser working modes (continuous, Pulse, Q-switching, mode locking, frequency doubling, etc.), widely used in industrial, medical, military and scientific research fields.


Characteristics of Nd:YAG:
1. High gain
2. Low threshold
3. High efficiency
4. Low loss
5. High thermal conductivity
6. Good thermal shock resistance

2. CTH: YAG (Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG) is one of the hotspots in solid-state laser research in recent years. It produces excellent crystals for 2.1μm wavelength lasers, and 2.1μm lasers using them as working materials are used in medicine and optical communications. , Remote sensing and lidar, laser chemistry, laser spectroscopy, material processing and other aspects show important application prospects.

The main advantages of CTH:YAG
1. High pulse output energy
2. Suitable for repetitive frequency work
3. It can work efficiently at room temperature
4. Suitable for lamp pumping or diode pumping
5. The wavelength of laser work is relatively safe for human eyes

3. Nd:YVO: Compared with Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO4 has a larger stimulated emission cross section and a higher absorption coefficient for pump light. It is a laser crystal with excellent performance, suitable for manufacturing laser diode pumps, especially for low- and medium-power lasers. It can be made into all solid-state lasers with output near infrared, green, blue to ultraviolet. Nd:YVO4 lasers have been widely used in materials processing, machinery, wafer inspection, medical inspection and other fields, and Nd:YVO4 diode-pumped solid-state lasers are rapidly replacing the traditional water-cooled ion laser and lamp-pumped laser market. 

The main advantages of Nd:YVO4:
1. Low light damage threshold and high slope efficiency
2. The output is linear polarization for biaxial crystal
3. Low-frequency pump wavelength, easy to single-mode output
4. Large stimulated emission cross section and high absorption of pump wavelength linewidth
5. The pump bandwidth at 808nm is 5 times that of Nd:YAG
6. The stimulated emission cross section at 1064nm is 3 times that of Nd:YAG



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